qy288千亿国际手机版|qy288|千亿国际娱乐【欢迎您】发布时间：2016-6-10 编辑：互联网 手机版
一、学习目标和要求 1．学习和掌握以下单词和习惯用语 单词 BC; Athens; continent; well-known; athlete; gold; medal; torch; host; Los Angels; Los Angels Lakers; badminton; Miami Heat; Manchester United; Leeds; shooting; AD; Greece; wrestling; competitor; motto; swift; Carl Lewis; rank; gymnastics; weight; weigh; venue; prepare; preparation; flag; profile; height; Houston Rockets; superstar; point; skill; professional; gesture; facial 习惯用语 stand for; would rather; take part in; join in; in preparation for 2．功能意念项目 1）学会用英语谈论体育运动。 2）学会用英语谈论奥林匹克运动会。 3）学会用英语谈论兴趣和爱好。 3．语法 学习一般将来时的被动语态。复习句子类型（主谓、主谓宾、主系表、There be等句型)。 4．语言运用 运用所学语言，围绕体育运动这一题材，完成教科书中规定的听、说、读、写的任务；阅读课文“THE OLYMPIC GAMES”，确切理解并完成有关课文内容和练习，学会用英语写某一体育明星的简历。 二、学习指导 1．单词和习惯用语的用法 1) stand for 代表, 象征,; 支持, 主张, 赞成; 参加...的竞选; 容忍 当主语是缩写字母时，谓语动词用第三人称单数。 例：GNP stands for gross national product. GNP代表国民生产总值。 P.O. stands for postal order. P.O.表示邮政汇票。 The letters PLA stand for the People’s Republic of China. PLA这几个字母代表中国人民解放军。 Do you stand for or against this principle? 你是支持还是反对这个原则？ We’ve always stand for a peaceful settlement of the border dispute. 我们一向主张和平解决边界争端。 We’ve consistently stood for negotiations through diplomatic channel to reach a fair solution of Iraqi problem. 我们一贯主张通过外交途径，公平合理地解决伊拉克问题。 Mr. Jackson is to stand for governor.杰克逊先生将做州长候选人。 I won’t stand for his unreasonable demands any longer. 我再也不会容忍他的无理要求了。 2) well-known adj.众所周知的；有名的；清楚明白的 例：Zhao Dan was a well-known Chinese performer. 赵丹是中国著名的表演家。 be/become well-known/known/famous for因...而出名 be/become well-known/known/famous as被称为，作为...而出名 be well-known/known to all 众所周知 例：Today he is well-known as a model leader.今天他是有名的模范领导人。 She was better known as a poet. 作为诗人，他名望更大。 Guilin is known for its beautiful sceneries. 桂林因风景优美而出名。 It is well-known to all that the Great Wall is a place of interest in China. 众所周知，长城是中国的一处名胜。 3) gold n. 黄金；金币；贵重的东西；高贵(纯洁) adj. 金的；金制的 例：People from the East rushed to California for gold. 东部的人们都涌向加州去淘金。 He wore a gold watch. 他带着一块金表。 He paid in gold and turned to the door. 他用金币付了钱，然后转身向门口走去。 He has a heart of gold.他又一颗高贵的心。 She has a voice of gold and sings beautifully. 她有一副金嗓子，唱歌很甜美。 gold & golden gold表示金制品; golden是指 “金色的”；还表示 “珍贵的；绝好的” 例：A girl with golden hair was walking at the other side of the street. 一位金发女郎走在大街的另一侧。 It is a golden opportunity for him to go to Britain to learn English. 让他去英国学英语真是一次良机。 注：golden是由gold + 后缀 -en构成的形容词，再如：earthen(泥的); oaken(橡木制的); waxen(腊的); wooden(木料的，木料制的); wool(l)en(羊毛的)；以-en构成的形容词往往还可以作比喻用。如：the Golden Age黄金时代；wooden head.呆子。 4) host n. 主人(对宾客而言.hostess女主人, 女房东, 女老板, 女服务员); (广播, 电视的)节目主持人; 旅馆老板；一大群, 极多； vt. 主办(宴会等); 款待, 作主人招待；作东， 例：I have a whole host of things to do today.我今天有一大堆事情要做。 Beijing has been chosen as host for the 2008 Olympic games. 北京被选为举办2008奥运会的主办城市。 Mr Brown was our host at the party. 布朗先生是我们晚会的主人。 The host team and the guest team won each of the games, so they were even with each other. 客队和主队各赢一场,现在他们两队打平了。 He has a whole host of difficulties in learning English. 他学英语有许许多多困难。 The conference was hosted by that committee. 该委员会充当这个会议的东道主。 I still remember the garden party he had hosted last spring. 去年春天他主办的花园聚会。 5) shoot v. 击中；射击(shoot at之向某人或某物射击并未打中) 例：He shot a deer and killed it dead.他击中了一只鸟并射杀了它。 He shot at the bird, but missed it.他向鸟射击但没打中。 He was shot in the arm.他的胳膊被打中了。 She shot an angry look at me.他怒气冲冲地瞪了我一眼。 6) would rather(US also had rather) 宁愿；宁可；与其...不如...。 would rather意为would prefer to，表示主观上的愿望或谈到将来。后接动词原形，经常和than连用(than后也接动词原形)，其否定式为would rather not do...。 例：I’d rather stay at home than go out.我宁可待在家里，不想出去。 I’d rather ride a bicycle rather than take a bus. 我愿意骑自行车而不愿意坐公共汽车。 ---Some more wine? ---Thank you, I’d rather not. I have to drive home. ---再来点酒好吗？ --- 不要了，我不能再喝了。我还得开车回家呢。 I’d rather还可以接完成不定式，表示对于已经发生事项在选择上的不合适。 例：I’d rather have gone to the theatre than stayed at home last night. 我昨天晚上要是不待在家里而是去看剧就好了。 I’d rather not have stayed at home last night. 我昨晚不待在家里就好了。 would rather前后可用不同的主语来表示某人宁愿让另一人做某事。在这种情况下，一般用过去时来表示现在或将来要做的事情。谈到过去的动作，用过去完成时。 例：I’d rather you went home.我愿意现在就回家。 I’d rather you hadn’t done that.我真希望你没做过那件事。 7) take part in参加、参与。 例：They all went to take part in the celebration. 他们都去参加庆祝。 We are having a game. Will you take part? 我们在玩，你参加吗？ play a part (in sth) 扮演...角色，起...作用。 例：Computer plays an important part in our life. 电脑在日常生活中起重要作用。 do one’s part. 尽职责、尽一份力量。 do sb’s part 支持某人。 take part in & join in参加活动。用join in和take part in都可以，后者更强调参与性，特别是较庄重的大型的有众多人参加的活动。 例：About one million workers joined in(=took part in) the strike .大约一百万工人参加了罢工。 注意：1). 积极参加take an active part in 或join actively in. 2). join sb. in... 意为“和某人一起（做某事）”而take part in则不能这样用。join in后可不跟宾语。而take part in后必须接宾语，如不接宾语in省略。 例：They came out for their morning exercises. I also joined in. 3). join可用来表示加入某个政党、团体、组织等。成为其中一个成员，这时join为及物动词，后边不接介词in；而take part in则不能这样用。 8) swift adj. 迅速的；快的；敏捷的；立刻的 adv. 迅速地；敏捷地 例：The government is swift to take steps to control the spread of the disease. 政府快速采取措施控制疾病蔓延。 be swift to+名／to do...：很快...的；易于（动不动就）...的 例：Carl Lewis is a swift runner. 卡尔刘易斯是一个跑得很快的人。 My baby is swift to fall; asleep.我的宝宝容易睡着。 Smith was swift to anger. 史密斯动不动就生气。 There are swift-running rivers in the valleys.山间多有湍急的河流。 swiftly adv. 迅速的；敏捷的 例：The pickpocket took the old man’s purse swiftly. 那个扒手飞快地摸走了老人家的钱包。 9) rank vi. 列为；列队 vt. 排列；归类于；把...分等／分类 n. 阶层，等级；地位，身份；军阶，军衔；高地位；显贵 例：She ranks high/first in her class.她在班上名列前茅／第一。 This town ranks high among beauty spots. 这城市在风景区中享有盛名。 When I entered the restaurant, I found the cups ranked neatly on the shelf .我进入那家饭店时发现杯子整齐地排列在架子上。 I rank her among ／with the country’s best writers. 我认为她可属全国最优秀作家之列。 Critics rank him as a first-class painter.评论家把他评价为一流的画家。 After two years he promoted to the rank of captain. 两年后他晋升到上尉军衔。 Take the taxi at the head of the rank.乘坐排在前头的那辆出租车。 Taxis stood in a rank in front of the station.出租车在车站前排成一列。 Last year he joined the ranks of the unemployed. 去年他加入到失业者大军（沦为失业者）。 People of all ranks took part in the strike. 各阶层的人都参加了罢工。 10) weight n. 重力；重量。注意以下例句中介词的使用。by weight的意思是“论重量，以斤两计；in weight则指“在重量上”。如果句中有weight,询问重量时要用what，而不是how much。 例：It is sixty grams in weight.他的重量是六十克。 Bananas are usually sold by weight.香蕉通常按重量卖。 He has grown in height and weight.他身高和体重都增加了。 Her weight has increased to 70 kilos.她的体重增加到了70公斤。 That man is twice my weight.那个男子的体重比我中一倍。 At the back of each dictionary there is a table of weights and measures. 每本字典后面都有一个度量衡表。 What is the weight of the gold coin? 这块金币的重量是多少？ You have put on/lost or taken off weight, haven’t you? 你体重增加／减少（变苗条）了，是不是？ weigh vt. 称...重量；称；估量...的轻重；考虑, 斟酌; 衡量vi. 重(若干) 例：He weighed himself on the scales.他在磅秤上称重量。 He weighed the stone in his hand. 他用手掂了掂这块石头的重量。 The man weighed the fish by hand.那个男子用手估量了那条鱼的重量。 She weighs fifty kilos. She weighs less than she used to. 她体重五十公斤，比以前轻多了。 How much do you weigh? 你体重多少？ They weighed the matter seriously. 他们认真考虑这件事。 Weigh your words before speaking. 将花钱要仔细考虑措辞。 He weighed the advantages and disadvantages of changing his job. (He weighed the advantages of changing his job against disadvantages.) 他把换工作的利弊加以权衡比较。 The doctors weighed the advantages of the operation against the risks involved. 医生们仔细考虑做这种手术的好处和危险。 11) history-making adj. 名垂青史的；开创历史的；载入史册的；历史性的 例：The president’s history-making decision brought the war to an end. 总统的具有历史性的决定使得这场战争得以结束。 That was a history-making discovery in medicine. 那是一项载入医学史册的重大发现。 history-making是合成词，由名词+动词的-ing形式构成。又如：man-eating; grass-eating; shoe-making; rope-walking; air-conditioning; daylight-saving; metal-cutting; peace-making等。 12) prepare vt. .准备；预备； vi.预备；作好准备 例：The company is preparing a book fair.这家公司正在筹备书展。 All the citizens have been prepared against the disaster. 所有人都准备好防灾。 They have prepared the ship for another arctic expedition. 他们再次装备好了北极探险的船只。 Mother is preparing the meal, father is preparing his lesson while I am preparing for the exam. 妈妈在做饭菜，爸爸在备课，而我在复习功课准备考试。 I prepared the ground for the seeds. 我整理好土地准备播种。 Working on a part-time basis can prepare them for a future career. 打工为大学生将来的工作作好准备。 Will you help me prepare for the get-together of the old classmates? 你能否帮我为这次老同学聚会做好准备工作? The team prepared themselves for defeat / to accept defeat. 这个队心理上做好了接受失败的准备。 The dinner is preparing.正在准备饭。 习惯用语： be prepared for准备着；作好准备； 例：They were prepared for anything to happen. 他们已准备好应付一切。 be prepared to do能力而且愿意 例：I am prepared to lend you the money if you promise to pay it back. 我愿意把钱借给你，你得答应还给我。 be prepared against对(不好的事）已作好准备 例：We must be prepared against natural disasters. 我们要做好准备，以防自然灾害。 prepare for为...作准备 例：Hope for the best and prepare for the worst. 存最好的希望，准备应付最坏的情况。 preparation n. (U) 准备；预备 (C. 通常用复数）准备工作；准备措施 例：You can’t pass the exam without preparation. 不准备就考不及格。 Preparation for the top government officers' visit are almost complete. 迎接政府高级官员来访的准备工作差不多已全部完成。 Food preparation areas must be kept clean.制作食品的场所应保持清洁。 He has never done enough preparations for his examinations. 他对考试从来不作好充分准备的。 Was your education a good preparation for your career? 你所受的教育是否为你的事业打下了良好的基础？ 习惯用语： be in preparation 在准备中; 在编辑中 例：The advertising is still in preparation.广告宣传仍在准备中。 The banquet is in preparation.宴会正在准备中。 in preparation for作为...的准备 例：They’ve sold their house and car in preparation for leaving the country. 他们卖掉了房子和汽车准备出国。 She bought a new coat in preparation for the winter. 她买了一件新大衣以备冬天之用。 make preparations against为对付...作准备 例：We are making preparations against SARS. 我们在为防“非典”作准备。 make preparations for为...作准备 例：They are busy making preparations for their wedding. 他们忙着筹备婚礼。 The country is making preparations for war/to go to war. 该国正在备战／准备打仗。 13) height n. 高；高度；海拔 例：He is two metres in height. 他身高两米。 The plane exploded at a height of a hundred feet above the ground 飞机在离地100英尺高度爆炸。 They measured the height of the bridge. 他们测量了桥的高度。 His height makes him stand out in the crowd. 他这么高,使他在人群中显得很突出。 in the height of summer 盛夏 Yao Ming is a man of towering height.姚明一个很高的人。 The height of Chomolungma is about 8848 metres above sea level. 珠穆朗玛山海拔8848米高。 习惯用语： at the height of在...的高度, 在...的最盛时; 在...的高潮中 例：She has been at the height of her career. 她已经到了事业的最高峰。 When he wrote this excellent novel, he was at the height of his powers as a writer.他写这部优秀小说时,正是他写作能力的全盛时期。 The tide was at its height.潮水涨到最高点了。 on height在高处; 向高处；高声地, 大声地 to the height达到最高点; 达到极点；高地；高岗；高处 例：Prices rise to a great height.价格大涨。 14) point n. 点；尖端；分数；要点；小数点；时刻 vt. 弄尖；指向；指出；瞄准；加标点于 vi.指, 指向, 表明 例：The melting point of lead is lower than that of iron.铅的熔点比铁的低。 What do these points stand for on the map?地图上的这些点代表什么? It was a turning point in his career. 这是他事业上的转折点。 Prices on the stock exchange advanced two points. 股票市场价格涨了两点。 He was wounded by a knife point.刀尖弄伤了他。 We won by 5 points. 我们赢了5分。 Score twenty-one points 获得二十一分 Singing is not my strong point.唱歌非我所擅长。例： What is the point of studying after the exam?考完事后再用功有什么意义? You have missed the whole point of the novel.你忽略这篇小说的要点。 You’ve missed the whole point.你未能抓住要点。 Why can’t you come to the point? 为什么你不把重点说明？ Read 4.18 as‘four point one eight’. 4.18 读作“四点一八”。 He quietly pointed his gun at the deer.他悄悄地把枪瞄准鹿。 It’s rude to point your fingers at others.用手指指向他人是不礼貌的。 She pointed her pen before drawing.在画画之前他把铅笔削尖。 The teacher pointed out my mistakes to me.老师指出了我的错误。 All indications point to an early spring.所有的迹象都显示春天的来临 At/on the point(of) 将近／就要…的时候 例：They were on the point of leaving when I arrived. At the point he got up and left the room. 此时他站起来，离开了屋子。 H is at the point of death. 他要死了。 On points以得分高低判定胜负 例：He won on points not knock-out 以积分（点数）获胜而不是击倒 He was defeated on points.他败于积分。 in point of 就…而言；关于…： 例：In point of fact, I never lived at the address stated on the form. 事实上，我从未在表中所填的那个地址居住过 to the point 切题的，切中的；与正在讨论的事件有关的 例：His answer was to the point. 他的回答很中肯。 When it comes to the point到紧要关头 例：When it came to the point, he refused to help. 在紧要关头，他拒绝给予帮助。 15) skill n. (C) 技能；技巧；熟练；巧妙；(U) 熟练；娴熟；本领；本事 例：Learning a foreign language is a question of learning new skills, not a question of acquiring new knowledge. 学习外语是一个学习新技能而不是获取新知识的问题。 She has rich writing skills. 她有丰富的写作才能。 She showed great skill in winning the hearts of the students. 她在赢得学生欢心方面展露出高超的技巧。 John shows great skill at driving/telling stories. 他显示出驾驶／讲故事的高度技巧。 He has no skill in teaching.他没有教书的本领。 skilful(=skillful) adj. 熟练的, 灵巧的; 擅长于(at; in)；巧妙的; 制作精巧的 例：She's not very skil(l)ful with her chopsticks(at using chopsticks). 她用筷子不大熟练。 This is a skillful piece of work. 这是一件有技术的工作。 He is a skilful mechanic.他是一位很有技巧的机械修理工。 skilled adj. (=skillful)熟练的; 有技能的; 需要技能的 (be) skilled in (at) 做某事熟练 例：They are all skilled hands [workers]. 他们都是熟练工人。 He is skilled in business. 他做生意[买卖]有经验。 She is skilled at dealing with complaints.他善于处理投诉个案。 She was skilled enough in French to translate a novel. 她法语娴熟, 足以翻译小说。 16) gesture n. (C, U)手势；姿势；态度；动作；表示 v.作手势, 以手势表示 例：The man spoke by gesture. 这男子用手势表达。 He gestured to his students to keep quiet.他示意学生们保持安静。 The invitation was meant as a friendly gesture .那邀请是友好的表示。 I gave her the flowers as a gesture of apology. 我送她这些花表示我的歉意。 He gestured angrily at me. 他气愤地对我做手势。 He gestured to me that it was time to go.他示意我们该走了。 2．语言要点 1) What’s your favourite sport?你最喜欢的是哪项运动？ sport表示“运动，娱乐，消遣，游戏”之意。 例：It’s great sport to swim in the sea.在海里游泳真好玩。 They often have outdoor sports. 他们经常做室外运动。 sport和game sport多指室内或室外运动，有一定的规则，需要体能和技巧，或娱乐性的或运动性的，打球，跳高，游泳，钓鱼，打猎，赛马和拳术等。泛指运动或运动的总称时，常用作不可数名词。特指某项运动时用作可数名词。 例：Swimming is his favourite sport. 游泳是他最喜欢的运动。 Skating is one of the winter sports. 滑冰是冬季运动中的一个项目。 How many hours of sport do you do every day? 你们每天搞几个小时的运动？（泛指） sport用作复数时，可指运动会， 等与sports meeting。 例：We have school sports meeting once a year. 我们每年举行一次校运会。 sport作定语时，多用复数，美语常用单数。 例：He has an expensive sport(s) car. 他有一辆昂贵的跑车。 game主要指决定胜负的游戏或竞技比赛，常有一定的规则，凡参加者均须遵守，既可以是体力的，也可以是脑力的。 例：Let’s go and watch the football game(英国match). 咱们去看足球比赛吧。 After a game on the sports field they often become good friends. 在运动场上进行一场比赛后，他们常常变成好朋友。 They often have a game of chess in the spare time. 闲暇时，他们常下棋。 game作复数时，一般指大型的国际体育运动会如the Olympic Games. 2) Which do you prefer, badminton or tennis?羽毛球和网球这两项运动，你喜欢哪一项？ I prefer water skiing to surfing. 我喜欢滑水而不喜欢冲浪。 prefer是及物动词，表示在两者中“宁愿要或更喜欢”的意思。prefer后跟： ① 名词或代词 例：The southerners prefer rice to flour. 南方人喜欢吃米饭不喜欢吃面食。 ② 跟动名词（一般不能接动名词的复合结构） 例：She preferred riding a bicycle (to taking a taxi).他喜欢骑自行车(而不喜欢乘出租车)。 While he was in the office, he preferred doing something (to sitting). 在办公室的时候，他喜欢做事儿(不喜欢闲坐着)。 ③ 跟不定式 例：He prefers to stay at home during the weekend. 周末他宁愿待在家里。 ④ 跟不定式的复合结构：prefer sb (to) do sth（不定式可以带to可以不带to） 例：I preferred him not to go to the park with us. 我不喜欢他同我们一起去公园。 She added, “I’d prefer you not call me Laura Baby.” 她又说，“我要你不要叫我洛拉贝贝。 ⑤prefer...to... 在本句型中，to是介词，prefer和to后面的宾语可以是名词、代词，也可以是动名词。 例：Most people prefer trains to buses.大多数人宁可坐火车也不坐公共汽车。 He prefers renting a car to having one of his own.她宁可租一辆汽车，也不愿意自己拥有一辆。 注意：本结构中的to可以用instead of代替。 例：They prefer using that laboratory instead of using this.他们比较爱用那个实验室而不用这个。 ⑥ 跟不定式+rather than+不定式 本句型中，第一个不定式前要带to，而第二个不定式前以不加to较常用；rather than可以置于句首；rather than后也可以接名词，这种用法多用于表示在某种具体场合的选择。 例：She preferred to go to the movies rather than watch TV at home. 她宁愿去看电影也不愿呆在家里看电视。 Rather than go with us she preferred to stay at home.他宁愿在家呆着也不愿和我们一起去。 ----What shall we have, coffee or tea? 我们和点什么，咖啡还是茶？ ----I should prefer coffee rather than tea. 我宁可和咖啡也不喝茶。 （这句话表示：在这样的场合我宁愿饮咖啡。） ⑦ 跟从句（从句的谓语动词用原形或should+动词原形） 例：Would you prefer that he (should) go with you? 你要他和你们一起去吗？ He preferred that she go by bus. 他宁愿让她乘公共汽车去。 3) Every four years athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games. 世界各地的运动员每四年参加一奥林匹克运动会。 every可以与表示数量的词连用，表示时间或空间的间隔。every four years还可以说成every fourth year，中文的意思是每四年或每隔三年。 every + 基数词 + 复数名词= every + 序数词 + 单数可数名词 例：He usually goes to see his uncle every ten days/every tenth day. 他通常每十天（每个九天）去看望叔叔一次。 Every four meters there is a tree along the highway. 沿着马路每四米（每隔三米）就有一棵树。 Please take the medicine every five hours. 请每五小时服用一次药。 every和other加单数名词连用，意为“每隔一......”或“其他的......都......”。也可以写成every second + 单数名词(意为“每隔一...”)或every two + 复数名词。 例：The students have a football game every other week. 学生们每隔一周有一次足球赛。 Every other person here agrees with us. 这里所有其他的人都同意我的看法。 Please write on every other line. 请隔行写。 every和few加上时间和空间的复数名词，意思是“每隔几（些）......”。 例：He came round to see his mother every few weeks. 隔几周他就来看看他母亲。 Every few hundred metres along the Great Wall there is a watchtower. 沿长城每隔几百米，就有一个岗楼。 4) The old Olympic Games from which the modern games came began around the year 776 BC in Greece. 古代奥林匹克运动会创始于公元前776年左右，是在希腊召开的，现代奥运会源出于古代奥运会。 ① the Olympic Games作主语时，谓语动词多用复数。 例：The twenty-fifth Olympic Games were held in Barcelona, Spain. 第二十五届奥运会是在西班牙的巴塞罗那举行的。 ② ...from which the modern Olympic Games came...是由介词和关系代词which引导的定语从句。介词的选择是根据从句中的搭配关系确定的，如此句中就是由come from搭配关系而定的。再如： Some of the games in which the young man competed were running, jumping and wrestling. 那时青年男子参加的竞赛项目有赛跑、跳远和摔跤。 They were held in Greece----the country in which the games were born. 首届现代奥运会在奥运会的发源地希腊举行。 The date on which (=when) he joined the Party was July 1, 1998. 他入党的日期是一九九八年七月一日。 The house in which(=where) he lived is now a library. 他住过的那栋房子现在是图书馆了。 5) The Olympic Games in modern times happened in 1896. 现代的首届奥运会是在1896年举行的。 time作“时代”解时，通常用复数形式。 例：Times have changed, and we shouldn’t fall behind them.时代变了，我们不应落后于时代。 It is the fastest computer of modern times.这是当代速度最快的计算机。 In ancient times, people lived on wild fruits and wild beasts. 在古代，人们靠吃野果和野兽为生。 She didn’t understand the spirit of the times.她不理解那个时代的精神。 有时，time作“时代”解时，也可以用单数形式。例如in Shakespeare’s time(在莎士比亚时代), the feelings of the time(反映时代的情绪)。 6) In the games, there were 311 competitors from just 13 countries. 在1896年的奥运会上只有来自13个国家的311名参赛者。 competitor是名词，意思是“竞赛者”，其形容词是competitive(竞赛的)，名词competition（竞赛)，动词是compete，compete是不及物动词，常用于compete against/with sb. in sth./for sth，例如： Several companies are competing against/with each other for the contract. 几家公司正为争取一项合同互相竞争。 Ten sportsmen competed for the gold medal. 十名运动员正这块金牌。 7) After that more and more countries joined in the games. 此后，越来越多的国家参加了运动会。 adj./adv.（比较级）+and+adj./adv.（比较级)，是一种“双重比较”的结构，表示持续不断的变化，意即“越来越......”。例如： It is getting colder and colder. 天越来越冷了。 My hometown is becoming more and more beautiful. 我的家乡变得越来越美了。 More and more farmers are coming to big cities. 越来越多的农民正涌入大城市。 3．语法说明：学习一般将来时的被动语态。 复习句子类型（主谓、主谓宾、主系表、There be等句型)。 一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或情况。一般将来时的被动语态的构成： will/shall + be + -ed(过去分词)。此外还有be going to + be + -ed, be to + be + -ed 等。 例：You won’t be allowed to take so much luggage with you. 不会让你带那么多行李的。 Shall we be asked to attend the opening ceremony? 要邀请我们参加开幕式吗？ What tools will be needed in the work? 工作中需要什么工具？ The play is going to be produced on three evenings. 这部剧要三天排出来。 A new hospital is to be built there. 在那要建一家医院。 句子类型：英语句子类型就是基本句型。一般来说有五种基本句型，千变万化的句子都是由他们演变而来的。这五种基本句型是： 1）主语＋(不及物动词)谓语。字母代号为SV(S=subject, V=verb) 在这类句型中，谓语动词后面又是可以不带任何成分，而大多数情况下跟着状语性质的修饰语。作不及物动词谓语的状语，可以是名词、副词、介词短语、不定式短语、分词短语、从句等。 例：主语＋不及物动词＋名词 They worked day and night. 他们日夜工作。 主语＋不及物动词＋for引导的介词短语＋动词不定式 The mother waited for her son to come back. 母亲等儿子回家。 It ＋不及物动词seem, happen, appear＋从句 It happened that they were out when we called on them that evening. 我们那天晚上去看望他们时，他们碰巧不在家。 2) 主语＋（及物动词）谓语＋宾语 这类句型中，谓语动词后都要有一个宾语；一些不及物动词加介词构成的短语，性质上是及物的，相当于一个及物动词。可以作及物动词宾语的有：名词、代词、数词、动词不定式、动名词、从句等。 例：主语＋及物动词＋数词 Who are going to take these three? 谁要拿走这三个？ 主语＋及物动词＋不定式 He tried to stand on his head. 他试图倒立。 主语＋及物动词＋动名词 I remember seeing her somewhere before.我记得在哪见过他。 3) 主语＋系动词＋表语 系动词除be外，还有由实义动词转化而来的系动词look, feel, seem, get, keep, last, sound等。可以用作表语的有：名词、名词性物主代词、不定代词、人称代词、形容词、数词、副词、不定式（短语)、动名词（短语)、分词(短语)、介词短语、从句。 例：Smith was the boss of the company. 史密斯是一家公司的老板。 Is this book yours? 这本书是你的吗？ It is a big mistake for her to have bought the clothes.她买了那衣服可犯了大错误。 It is a pity that she is out. 很遗憾，她出去了。 4) 主语＋(及物动词)谓语＋间接宾语＋直接宾语（双宾语） 例：主语＋及物动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 He gave me some beautiful pictures. 她给了我一些漂亮的画片。 主语＋及物动词＋直接宾语＋to引导介词短语 He handed the purse to the teacher. 他把钱包交给了老师。 主语＋及物动词＋直接宾语＋for引导介词短语 Would you fetch some chalk for me? 你给我取一些粉笔号吗？ 5) 主语＋（及物动词）谓语＋宾语＋宾补（复合宾语） 宾语和宾补之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。可以用作宾补的有：名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、现在分词、过去分词。 例：主语＋及物动词＋名词、代词＋形容词 We elected him monitor of our class. 我们选他当班长。 主语＋及物动词＋it＋形容词、名词、动名词＋for/of sb＋不定式 I think it foolish of him to believe her. 我认为他相信她是愚蠢的。 这些基本句型都是陈述句、肯定句和主动句，象疑问句、否定句、被动句都是由这些基本句型演变来的，基本句型还可以扩大，有祈使句，感叹句，并列句，复合句，强调句等。 6）there be句型 这是一种表示“存在”的句型。there是引导词，本身没有意义，主语通常在谓语动词be之后，谓语动词be须与主语保持“数 ”的一致。在构成疑问式时，把be提到there前。否定是在动词后加not。 例：There is going to be a meeting tomorrow. 明天有会。 There are a lot of books in our school library. 我们学校图书馆有很多书。 There isn’t a doctor in the village. 这个村子没有医生。 Is there anybody here? 这有人吗？ 这种结构中的谓语动词有时不用动词be，而用seem to be，happen to be，appear to be等；还可以是live，come，go，stand，lie等动词。 例：There happened to be no one in the room. 碰巧屋子里没有人。 There stands a tall building by the lake. 湖边矗立着一座高楼。 三、课文理解 1. The most obvious difference between the old Olympic Games and the modern Olympics is that ________. A. people get different prizes today because the sports they take part in are absolutely different. B. women were not allowed to take part in the games before C. people now pay more attention to the Olympics D. many of the sports in the old Olympics were different from what they are now. 2. Which is not included in the text? A. The Olympic motto. B. The history of the old Olympic Games C. The development of the modern Olympic Games. D. The five Olympic rings stand for the five continents. 3. From the passage we know that ______. A. the competition between countries to host the Olympics is getting hotter and hotter. B. more and more countries are less eager to compete in the Olympics C. the time to host the Olympics will be shorter than four years D. The Olympic Games will not include diving, gymnastics and also weight-lifting 4. The first Olympic Games in modern times happened about ________years after the old Olympic Games. A. two thousand B. one thousand and eight hundred C. one thousand and five hundred D. one thousand and six hundred 5. From the third paragraph we can infer that________. A.the modern Olympic Games has quickly been developed since the first Olympic Games in modern times happened in 1896. B. the modern Olympic Games have the same events as they did before. C. no Olympic Games can be more important than the 27th Olympics held in Sydney, Australia. D. hosting the 27th Olympic Games made Sydney a famous city. 四、语法知识训练(一般将来时的被动语态；句子类型) Ⅰ. 将下列句子变成被动语态。 1. We will discuss the problem brought forward by Mr. Jefferson late this afternoon. →_________________________________________________________________. 2. What will we do ? →_________________________. 3. The guard will stop anyone who tries to enter the hall. →______________________________________________________. 4. The Chairman will give the prize to the player who scores most points. →______________________________________________________. 5. We ‘ll throw away those ones we don’t want. →______________________________________________________. 6. We are going to put up a pigsty here. →______________________________________________________. 7. They are to open the line to traffic next month. →______________________________________________________. 8. You will have to finish the work at the end of this month. →______________________________________________________. 9. He is going to paint the wall green. →______________________________________________________. 10. They are delivering the new piano this afternoon. →______________________________________________________. Ⅱ. 用所给词汇仿照下面例子造句。 例：He will be told about it when he turns up. 11. wake, whenever, up, he, the train, by, pass. ______________________________________________________. 12. clean, the windows, and, wash, floor, the. ______________________________________________________. 13. meet, you, by Mr Cheng, when, there, get, you. ______________________________________________________. 14. before, the seats, begin, the meeting, arrange, in five rows. ______________________________________________________. 15. it, the date, this afternoon, agree on, after, discuss, for the meeting. ______________________________________________________. Ⅲ. 把下列句子译成英语。 16. 夏天他最喜好的运动是游泳。 _____________________________________________________. 17. 保存书而不看是没有用的。. ______________________________________________________. 18. 王刚跑着进到教室，上气不接下气。 ______________________________________________________. 19. 他对学生解释说，那天他病了。 ______________________________________________________. 20. 我们会让你看看这是谁的命令。 ______________________________________________________. 21. 我认为他放弃学英语真可惜。 ______________________________________________________. 22. 你听过用英语唱这首歌吗？ ______________________________________________________. Ⅳ. 句型转换。 23. He put on his raincoat, and left the house.(用分词) →_____ ______ his raincoat, he left the house. 24. He is not rich enough. He cannot afford a refrigerator.(用不定式) → He is not rich enough _______ ________ a refrigerator. 25. He studies day and night. He purposes to pass the joint entrance examination for colleges. → He studies day and night ____ ____ ____ pass the joint entrance examination for colleges. 26. The children were cross and hungry. The children came in. → ______ and ______, the children came in. 27. His voice shook with emotion. He expressed his heartfelt thanks. → ______ ______ ______ ______ with emotion, he expressed his heartfelt thanks.. 28. Mary did not go to the movies. She stayed at home. → _____ _____going to the movies, Mary stayed at home. 29. The noticed the dog. The dog was coming towards them. → They noticed the dog ______ ______ them. 30. How is fire to be made? This is the question first occurring to the mind of a savage. → _____ _____ _____ to be made _____ the question first occurring to the mind of savage. 五、综合训练 Ⅰ. 基础知识运用 A. 单项选择 1. I have looked through today’s newspaper but there is ______ in it. A. nothing specially interesting B. specially interesting nothing C. nothing special`` interesting D. interesting special nothing 2. ______ the early bus, we used to get up very early. A. To catch B. So that we could catch C. So as to catch D. Catching 3. You may take anything useful ________. A. which you want B. you want it C. what you want D. you want 4. Most of them want to win the medal _______young men compete. A. in which B. which C. for which D. between which 5. The girl ______I introduced Mary is twenty minutes late. A. to whom B. for who C. for whom D. to who 6. A goat is a _______animal. A. grass-eaten B. eaten grass C. to eat grass D. grass-eating 7. It’s well-known that all the athletes will ______medals in the sports meet. A. fight B. fight for C. fight with D. fight against 8. She prefers ______a term paper rather than take an examination. A. writing B. to be writing C. to write D. write 9. ---Tom is from England and he doesn’t know Chinese. ----The same _______his sister. A. as B. with C. to D. for 10. Do you know where the next Olympic Games ________? A. is to be held B. are to take place C. are to hold D. are to be going to be held B. 句型转换 11. I like playing basketball better than watching TV. → I _______ playing basketball _______ watching TV. 12. Do you do well in your English study? → ______ you ______ ______ English? 13. Which sport do you like best? → What is ______ ______ sport? 14. We will be preparing to make the 2008 Olympics the best ever games. → We will be ______ ______ ______ making the Olympics the best ever games. 15. What is the point of discussing this issue further? → Is it ______ ______ ______ this issue further? C. 用所给词或短语把下列句子译成英语。 16. 字母CCTV代表中国中央电视台。(stand for) ___________________________________________________________________. 17.这次学术会议的东道主由我们学校充当。(host) (academic conference学术会议) ___________________________________________________________________. 18. 明天别来。我希望你下周末来。(would rather) ___________________________________________________________________. 19. 所有人都准备好防“非典”。(be prepared against) ___________________________________________________________________. 20. 我希望大家踊跃参加这次运动会。(take part in, join in) ___________________________________________________________________. Ⅱ. 完形填空 用适当的词将下列短文补充完整，每空一词。 I was very fond of hunting when I was a young man. In the autumn of 1935, I was traveling in the northwest of India. One evening, after __21__in the forest all day, I was returning alone to the place _22__ I had put up my tent. I was tired and hungry. It was getting darker and darker, and I was walking slowly along a narrow path. On my _23__was a wide river; on my left, a thick dark__24__. All of a sudden, I saw two green __25__ looking at me from among the trees. I knew it must be a man-eating tiger. The tiger was getting ready to jump on me. My heart sank. What could I do? _26__I jump into the river and hope to save my life by swimming? I looked to the right. In the _27__there was a big crocodile waiting to welcome me with its mouth wide open. I was so __28__that I shut my eyes. And I thought it would be the end of my life. I heard branches moving as the tiger roared and jumped. Just then I _29__ my eyes. What do you think had happened? The tiger had __30__right over me and now in the jaws of the crocodile. Ⅲ. 阅读理解 A Weifang, a kite city, is an old handicraft town located in the middle part of Shandong peninsula in east China. It is the birthplace of Chinese kite with a history of kite flying and manufacturing(.制造) for about 500 years. Weifang kite is famous for its delicately(精致地) selected materials (split bamboo and silk), careful and neat painting, bright colors, exquisite(精致的) framing and mounting(衬) and smooth gliding(流畅的). "Hang up on the wall it's a painting, fly up in the sky it's a kite." Hand-made and hand-painted, the main kinds of Weifang kite are bird and animal kite. The masterpiece is dragon kite, as the dragon is the symbol of the Chinese nation. Since 1984, the Weifang International Kite Festival has been held annually in this city in April. Traditional Chinese kites from Weifang has become world famous and a must kind for kite-collection, kite festivals and kite exhibitions. As a leading kite manufacturing and distributing company located in Weifang, China, we manufacture huge selections of kites and accessories(附件) such as traditional Chinese kites, sports kites, handles and other kite accessories. Our traditional Chinese kites like butterflys, dragon, eagles, etc., are really value-added art with top quality and competitive price. Our sport kites(stunt kite) framed in fiberglass are also very popular among kitefliers. 根据短文内容判断正误（True or False） ( )31. Weifang is a city in Shandong province, whose kites are the best in the world. ( )32. Weifang is well-known for its dragon kite as the dragon is the symbol of the Chinese nation. ( )33. “Hang up on the wall it’s a painting, fly up in the sky it’s a kite.” Shows that the kites made in Weifang are all painted by famous artists. ( )34. The Weifang International Kite Festival has been held every two years in April. ( )35. The kite manufacturing and distributing company was the only company in weifang. B In Europe, men do not usually wear skirts. But the Scottish national clothing for men is a kind of skirt. It is called a kilt. The Scottish like to be different. They are also proud of their country and its history, and they feel that the kilt is part of that history. That’s why the men still wear kilts at traditional (传统的) dances and on national holidays. They believe they are wearing the same clothes that Scottish men always used to wear. That’s what they believe. However, kilts are not really so old. Before 1703, Scottish men wore a long shirt and blanket around their shoulders. These clothes got in the way when the men started to work in factories. So, in 1730 a factory owner changed the blanket into a skirt: the kilt. That’s how the first kilt was made. Then, in the late 1700s Scottish soldiers in the British Army began to wear kilts. One reason for this was national sentiment(=feelings): The Scottish soldiers wanted to be different from the English soldiers. The British Army probably had a different reason: A Scottish soldier in a kilt was always easy to find! The Scottish soldiers fought very hard and became famous. The kilt was part of the fame, and in the early 1800s men all around Scotland began to wear kilts. These kilts had colorful stripes (条纹) going up and down and across. In the 1700s and early 1800s, the color of the stripes had no special meaning. Men sometimes owned kilts in several different colors. But later the colors became important to the Scottish families. By about 1850, most families had special colors for their kilts. For example, men from the Campbell family had kilts with green, yellow and blue stripes. Scottish people often believe that the colors of the kilts are part of their family history. In fact, each family just chose the color they liked best. This is not the story you will hear today if you are in Scotland. Most Scottish people still believe that kilts are as old as Scotland and that the color are as old as the Scottish families. Sometimes feelings are stronger than facts! 根据短文内容回答下列问题。 36. What is the main idea of the passage? 37. How was the first kilt made? 38. Why did men all around Scotland begin to wear kilts? 39. Why do the colours the kilts have become important to the Scottish families? 40. What can we infer from the last paragraph? C Shefielde Lincoln College of English Classes for foreign students at all levels. 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and one year course. Open all year. Small class (maximum 12 students). Library, language laboratory and listening center. Accommodation (住宿) with selected families. 25 minutes from London. Course fees for English for one year are ￡1,380 with reduction (减少)for shorter periods of study. 41. This passage is probably taken from ________. A. an advertisement B. a notice C. a poster D. a piece of news 42. The college is trying to _________. A. take on English teachers B. introduce itself to the public C. take in the students who want to get accommodation there D. take in the students who want to study English there 43. Who are admitted in? A. Both foreign and native students B. Only foreign beginners and the advanced C. Foreign students from beginners to the advanced D. Only foreign students advanced 44. If you want to study there, you will be accepted ________. A. in Spring B. in Autumn C. at the beginning of the year D. whenever you wish to 45. While you stay there, who will take care of you? A. The school where you study B. The family you have chosen C. Your classmates D. Your parents D Holidays in the United States usually occur(出现) at least once a month. Most months have a national holiday that has been arranged(安排) to be celebrated on a Monday. The holidays have all been decided to be celebrated on a Monday so that the workers may have 3-day weekends---that is, Saturday, Sunday and Monday in order to rest or travel or do things with their families. Major holidays in the United States such as New Year’s Day or Christmas Day or the day, when we remember the first settlers of the United States, called Thanksgiving Day are celebrated all over the country. During these holidays most businesses close and the workers stay home and celebrate with their family. Vacation can be from two weeks a year to four weeks a year. This usually depends on how long you’ve been working for a company, what type of position you have, whether you have a very high position or a very important position and it’s difficult to find someone to replace you. In this case, you might take a few days at a time rather than taking one month all at once. Usually the more time you spend working for a company, the more time you may get for a vacation. 46. The government of the United States makes it a rule for workers to have a _______weekend almost once a month. A. 1-day B. 2-day C. 3-day D. 4-day 47. Workers in the United States sometimes work from_________. A. Monday to Saturday B. Tuesday to Sunday C. Thursday to Friday D. Tuesday to Friday 48. Which statement is not true according to this passage? A. Only a few shops remain open on New Years Day. B. Most of the workers needn’t work on Christmas Day. C. Days on vacation must be more than all the holidays in a year. D. All the workers have a half month vacation at least. 49. The reason why someone has to divide his vacation into several parts is that________. A. no one can be found to take his place B. he hasn’t a most high position C. he plays an important role in his work D. he hasn’t been working for his company for a long time 50. Which of the following is the best title for this passage? A. Holidays in the United States. B. Vacation in the United States. C. How do the workers spend their holidays. D. Something about the holidays and vacation in the United States. Ⅳ. 单句改错 51. Do you have any farther questions? __________ 52. Do you know the boy at whom she was talking about a moment ago? __________ 53. The Olympic Games are popular with people all over the world __________ and it will be held in Bejing. 54. She likes volleyball better than any sport. __________ 55. The gold medal in which the competitors competed was stolen. __________ 56. 1997 was the year from which Hong Kong returned to its motherland. __________ 57. Every second years teams from all over the world take part in the World Cup. __________ 58. Sun Xiaojun prefers wrestling than horse riding. __________ 59. The teacher prepared for the students for the exams. __________ 60. He is tall by height and light in weight. __________ Ⅴ. 书面表达 根据下列所给内容用英语写一篇你的老师的简历。字数要求80左右。 1．姓名：吴静 2．出生：1970. 6. 8 3．籍贯：吉林省长春市 4．参加工作时间：1994，9 5．任教学科：英语 6：工作业绩： 工作认真，授课生动有趣，易懂难忘；对学生既严格又亲切；不断改进教学方法，教学质量高，多次被评为先进教师，受到师生和社会的尊重。 Unit 8 参考答案： 三、课文理解 1－5. BDACA 四、语法知识训练 I.1. The problem brought forward by Mr Jefferson will be discussed late this afternoon. 2. What will be done? 3. Anyone who tries to enter the hall will be stopped by the guard. 4.The prize will be given (by the chairman) to the player who scores most./ The player who scores most will be given the prize (by the chairman) 5.Those ones we don’t want will be thrown away. 6.A pigsty is going to be put up here. 7.The line is to be opened to traffic next month. 8.The work will have to be finished at the end of this month. 9.The wall is going to be painted green. 10.The new piano is being delivered this afternoon. II. 11. He will be woken up whenever the train passes by. 12. The windows will be cleaned and the floor (will be)washed. 13. You will be met by Mr. Cheng when you get there 14. The seats will be arranged in five rows before the meeting begins. 15. The date for the meeting will be agreed on after we discuss it this afternoon. III. 16. Her favourite sport in summer is swimming. 17. It is no use/useless keeping books without reading them. 18. Wang Gang came running into the classroom, quite out of breath. 19. He explained to his students that he was ill that day. 20. We’ll show you whose order it is. 21. I consider it a pity that he has given up studying English. 22. Have you ever heard this song sung in English? IV. 23. Putting on 24. to afford 25. in order to 26. Cross and hungry 27.With his voice shaking 28. Instead of 29. coming towards 30. How fire is, is 五、综合训练 I. 基础知识运用 A: 1－5 AADCA 6－10 DBCBB B. 11. prefer, to 12. Are, good at 13.your favourite 14. in preparation for 15. any use discussing C: 16. The letters CCTV stand for China Central Television. 17. Tahe academic conference was hosted by our university. 18. Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather you came next week. 19. All the citizens/people have been prepared against the disaster. 20. I wish every one of us to take an active part in/to join actively in the sports meeting. ( I hope that every one of us will take…) II. 完形填空 21. hunting 22. where 23. right 24. forest 25. eyes 26. Should 27. river 28. frightened 29. opened 30. jumped III. 阅读理解 A: 31.T 32. F 33. F 34. F 35. F B. 36. Scottish kilts. 37. The first kilt was made by a factory owner from the blanket the workers wore. 38. Because the Scottish soldiers became famous for their brave fighting and the kilt was partly a symbol of the fame. 39. Because most families have special colours for their kilts and they believe that the colours are as old as their families. 40. We can infer that the Scottish prefer to keep their tradition rather than believe the facts. C. 41－45 ADCDB A. 46－50 CDDAD IV. 单句改错： 51. farther改为further 52. 去掉at 53. it改为they 54. any后加other 55. in改为for 56. from改为in 57. second改为two或years改为year 58. than改为to 59. 去掉for 60. by改为in V. 书面表达 Wu Jing’s Profile Born: June 8, 1970 in Changchun, Jilin Province began to work: September of 1994 profession: English teacher Ms. Wu is always strict in her work. She has a strange way of making her classes lively and interesting and the lessons she teaches are easy to understand and unforgettable. She is not only strict with her students but also kind to them. She keeps trying new ways to improve her teaching methods, and the teaching quality rises year by year. So she has been given the title of advanced teacher for many times. She is greatly loved and respected by the people both in school and in society.