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Unit 1 That must be a record ! Reading Summarize the general idea of each paragraph. Para. 1 The first edition of Guinness Book of World Record Para. 2 Records of different categories Para. 3 Chinese record Para. 4 Records from the world of sports Para. 5 Why are people so interested in records? Para. 6 How to set a record? Fast reading T or F. 1.The Guinness company began to the Guinness Book of World Records in the 1950s. 2.More than 60,000 new records are printed in the book each year. 3.An Englishman balanced a small car weighing 159.6 kilogrammes on his head for 33 seconds. 4.The Lance Armstrong' s speed record is more impressive than his struggle against his disease. 5.The records that are dangerous to the person who is attempting it or to others are not allowed in the book. 6. The The records in the Guinness Book of World Records are including different areas of people' s life. careful reading Choose the best answers 1.The idea which led to The Guinness Book of Records came up by 答案:C A. Ross Mc Whirter B. Norris C. Sir Hugh Beaver D. Brewery 2.The Guinness Book of World Records has chapters except 答案:A A. education B. science and technology C. travel and transport D. the natural world 3.Among the Chinese records in The Guinness Book of Records,some examples are given except . 答案:D A. Tian'anmen Square B. Hong Kong's return to China C. Jiaozi D. the Yellow River 4.The reason why Lance Armstrong's records are special is that . 答案:D A .he is a wonderful winner B. he won the first place in the race C. he has achieved brilliant achievements D. he fought against cancer bravely and won his goal 5.Which type of record attempts is NOT allowed in the following?It is . 答案:C A .the one that a man can live to be very old B. the one that a man can balance a small car on his head C. the one which is dangerous to the person who is attempting it or to others D. the one that a man can wear the longest beard in the world 6.The text is mainly about . 答案:C A .a famous book B. Sir Hugh Beaver came up with an idea C. The Guinness Book of Records D. many records in the world 7.From the sentence “...,it fades next to the story of Armstrong's struggle against disease”,we know that . 答案:D A. his fastest speed is as impressive as his story of struggle against cancer B. his fastest speed is more impressive than his story of struggle against cancer C. his story of struggle against cancer is less impressive than his fastest speed D. his story of struggle against cancer is more impressive than his fastest speed 8.From the text,the main reason that led to Sir Hugh's idea is that 答案:C A. his hard work B. his talent C. his curiosity D. his careful research 9.From the last paragraph, we can infer that . 答案:D A. if a person wants to make a record, he can do it without permission B. if a person can do bad to others, he can make a record C. if your idea is not suitable, you can also get the permission of the Guinness Book of World Records D. The Guinness Book of World Records is very careful about making a record 10.According to the text, which statement is true? 答案:B A. No people in the world are not interested in strange and unusual things. B. There are many athletic records in the Guinness Book of World Records. C. There are no Chinese records in the Guinness Book of World Records. D. All of the 60 000 new records will be printed each year. Answer the following questions 1. How did Sir Hugh Beaver come up with the idea for Guinness Book of World Records? He first wanted to settle an argument about the fastest bird in Europe.After talking to his friends, he concluded that a book which answered such questions might popular. 2 .What Guinness record were set in Urumqi and Hong Kong? Urumqi is the most remote city from the sea ; The A special and delicious record was set in 1997 to celebrate Hong Kong' s return to China. 3. How long is the longest moustache in the world? 1.6 meters 4. What are the categories in Guinness Book of World Records? The human body, the amazing feats, the the natural world, the science and technology, the arts and the media, the model society, the travel and transport, and sports and games. 5. The Why are Lance Armstrong' s records special? The It fades next to the story of Armstrong' s struggle against disease. 6. What types of record attempts are not allowed? Records that are dangerous to the person who is attempting it or to others 7. Why do you think many people are interested in world records? The Because we want to know what is possible and find out just how far we can push ourselves and are also entertained by accounts of strange and unusual deeds and facts. Have a competition! 8. Who got the idea to write the Guinness Book of World Records? Sir. Hugh Beaver. 9. When was the first edition of the Guinness Book of World Records published? In 1955. 10. How are records collected in the book? Please give 3 examples. The Guinness Book of World Records has chapters on the human body, amazing feats, the natural world, science and technology , arts and the media, modern society, travel and transport, and sports and games. Examples: Tian' anmen Square is the largest square in the world. the longest moustache reached a length of 1.6 metres. the longest poisonous snake is 5.71 metres long. 11. Why are people so interested in world records? Because we are curious about the records and also entertained by accounts of strange and unusual deeds and facts. 12. How can you try to set a record? First contact the Guinness Book of World Records. Then the editors will send you rules and the form you need to apply the record after their discussion. Afterwards a Guinness official will come to inspect your attempt. If you are successful, the official will confirm the record and give you a certificate. 13.How much do you know about Guinness and the world record? 1955 1999 60,000 480 2500 40 5.71 33 1.6 Discussion: If you want to set a record, what kind of record would you like to? Phrases: 当时啤酒厂的老板 the then director of the brewery 处理一个争议 settle an argument 一本畅销书 a best-seller 被选入该书 be sent in to the book 记下,写下set down 联系 keep track of 被分成不同的类别 be put into different categories 惊异的技艺 amazing feats 长达 reach a length of 毒蛇 a poisonous snake 离海最远的城市 the most remote city from the sea 庆祝香港回归 celebrate Hong Kong’s return to China 在辉煌的体育成绩中among the brilliant athletic achievements 瞩目 stand out 背后感人的故事 the moving life stories behind them 次于,在……之后 next to 同疾病斗争 struggle against disease 被诊断出癌症 be diagnosed with cancer 继续创造纪录 go on to set the record 实现目标 achieve the goal of 连续不断 in a row 致使……做……lead sb. to do sth. 首先 in the first place 高兴 be entertained 可成为,可造成,有好处make for 申请 apply for 一切进行顺利 all goes well 检查纪录inspect the attempt 确认纪录 confirm the record 取得证书 get a certificate in a soccer career 在足球生涯中 settle an argument about 确定关于…的论点 be sent into 被收入 .head down to 开往;前往;朝向 have been around 遍布全球(各地);深入人心 burst into something 突然而猛烈地发出或产生某事物 centre on /upon 将某人或某事物当作中心或重点 concentrate on 专心致力于 a length of 1.6 metres an area of about 40 hectares set a world record celebrate Hong Kong’s return to China win the bid for the 29th Olympic Games in 2008 over the past two decades be fascinated to do sth. burst into cheers get a better understanding of China try new tricks on … capture the hearts and minds of people be willing to do sth. everything/ all goes well Integrating skills Revision: Retell the text we learned yesterday according to the information in the following chart. How and when the first edition was put out? Sir Hugh Beaver, an argument, the first, in 1955, How are the records printed? different categories Why people are so interested in world records? curiosity, be entertained by accounts of How the Guinness Book of World Records accepts a world record? contact, decide, send, inspect, confirm, get Scanning: 1.On weekends what do Lin Yong and his friends usually do after finishing their homework? They will go to the park to do skateboarding. 2.When and how did they come up with the idea to build the ramp? Three years ago after watching a skateboarding competition on TV. 3.What is their skateboarding club called ? Fun On Wheels. 4.What is the goal of skateboarding competition ? The goal is to have fun and enjoy the excitement of trying something new. 5.Is the sport too dangerous in their opinion? No, they don’t think so. Because they all wear helmets and other equipment to protect themselves. They don’t let anyone try a dangerous trick unless they are sure that they are skilled enough to perform it safely. Detailed Reading Read the text again and answer the following questions: 1.360’ and ‘hang ten’ are two skateboarding terms. Can you guess what they mean? ‘360’ means to make a circle in the air. ‘Hang ten ‘means to fly in the air with one’s feet on the board. 2.How are ‘extreme sports’ different from traditional sports? Extreme sports are about beauty, harmony and thrills. They do not have rules about winning and losing. The goal is to have fun and the excitement of trying something new. 3.What is the ‘X-factor’ ? The ‘X-factor’ means the pure joy of doing something that you did not think you could do and overcoming your fears. 4.What kind of safety equipment do skateboarders use? All the riders wear helmets and other equipment to protect themselves. 5.Why do you think some people like extreme sports? They like the feeling, the excitement and the thrill that extreme sports bring. Use the following words to describe the people in the chat: enthusiastic, brave, friendly, responsible, curious, delighted, energetic, kind, experienced, interested, wise, athletic, cautious, outgoing, skillful, powerful Li Yong and his friends enthusiastic, brave,, experienced, cautious, delighted, energetic, skillful, friendly, interested, athletic, outgoing, powerful, responsible People who visited the grand opening curious The park manager kind People who like extreme sports brave Unit 2 Crossing limits Reading: What do you know about the Silk Road? The “Silk road” began from Chang’an, the city of Xi’an now, along the Gansu Corridor(通道), then to West Asia and Europe. Scanning: 1.What could have been possible reasons to search for sea routes from China while routes over land were shorter and already existed? Marco Polo’s stories, Columbus and other European explorers influenced people.They all thought Asian lands were very wealthy. 2. What do you know about Gan Ying? In 97 AD Gan Ying, a Chinese ambassador, went to the East Roman Empire over land and returned to Luoyang with a present from an African king ----rhinoceros horn. 3. What do you know about Zheng He? In the years between 1405 and 1433, Zheng He set sail from the South China Sea across the Indian Ocean to the mouth of the Red Sea, and then travelled further south, discovering the eastern coast of Africa. Choose the best answers 1.Who were (was ) the earliest explorer(s) of the Western Ocean?答案:D A. Marco Polo. B. Christopher Columbus. C. European explorers. D. Brave merchants. 2.Through the Silk Road, China got from other countries. 答案:A A. spices and glass B. silk C. weapons D. milk 3.An African king gave rhinoceros horns to China in order to . 答案:C A. make money B. stop the war C. show his friendship D. award the Ambassador 4.Which of the following became the world’s trading center over a few centuries after Han Dynasty? 答案:C A. Ceylon. B. India. C. Swanhili kingdoms. D. Egypt. 5.In Du Huan’s book “Record of My Travels” you can learn about . 答案:B A. Marco Polo B. many foreign countries C. Christopher Columbus D. ways to make silk 6.Who does “The Chinese Columbus” refer to? 答案:D A. The Ming emperor. B. Du Huan. C. The Chinese ambassador. D. Zheng He. 7.The text is mainly about . 答案:D A. how the Silk Road was formed B. how China developed trading relations with Arabic countries C. Zheng He’s expeditions across the Indian Ocean D. the history of China’s opening to the outside world 8.The small bronze statue of a lion found in Shanga most probably came from . 答案:A A. China B. Rome C. Greece D. London 9.“In the east, China prospered under a new dynasty.” The underlined part refers to . 答案:D A .the Han Dynasty B. the Song Dynasty C. the Qin Dynasty D. the Ming Dynasty 10.Which of the following can be inferred from the text? 答案:C A. Columbus’ exploration was stopped for economic reasons. B. No accurate maps of the countries around the Indian Ocean existed before Zheng He. C. In the Ming Dynasty China had the most powerful navy in the world. D. The giraffe was an animal that could not be found in China in the Ming Dynasty. Summarize main idea of the text and main idea of each para. Title Reaching Out Across the Ocean Thesis sentence Many great explorers made expeditions across the Indian Ocean long before Columbus, among whom Zheng He was the most prominent. Main idea(before Zheng He) P2 China had contacts with countries along the Indian Ocean from the early time, and during ancient time explorers had begun to contact with each other. Main idea(before Zheng He) P3 Between the Han and the early Tang Dynasty, Swahili kingdoms and the islands off the African coast developed into the world trade centre and attracted merchants from the world. Main idea(before Zheng He) P4 During the Tang Dynasty, Du Huan, who traveled to many lands, wrote the book Record of My Travels. P5 In the eleventh century, the Africans made several voyages to the court of the Song Dynasty. Mainidea(afterZheng He) P6 By the beginning of the fifteenth century the time was ripe for a grand meeting. P7 In the years between 1405 and 1433, under the command of Zheng He, seven large treasure fleets sailed westwards on voyages of trade and exploration. Main idea (after Zheng He) P8 Zheng He renewed relations with the kingdoms of the East African coast. P9 The fleet made several expeditions before the exploration was stopped. Careful reading: Fill in the charts. Period Name Way of travel Goods In 97 AD Gan Ying Over land Rhinoceros horns In 751-762 Du Huan On land and by boat In the 11th century The Africans By sea Bronze statue of a lion In 1405-1433 Zheng He By sea Giraffes,zebras, shells, elephant ivory,gold,spices,silk,rhinoceros-horn, medicine, etc. Judge the following sentences True or False 1.The Europeans were the first Explorers to travel to other countries. 2. Accurate maps of the countries around the Indian Ocean were made before the fifteenth century. 3. In the years between 1405 and 1433,Zheng He sailed westwards only on voyages of exploration. 4. Zheng He invited African countries to send ambassadors to China. T Put the sentences in good order. 1.In the eleventh century, the Africans made several voyages to the court of the song dynasty. 2.Merchants from the Arabic countries began to travel to the Swahili kingdom and the islands off the African coast to trade with them. 3.People of the Han Dynasty exchanged silk for spices and glass with Indians and Romans by way of the Silk Road. 4. The Chinese traveller, Du Huan, wanderedThrough Arabic countries for about 10 years. 5.Christopher Columbus and other European explorers searched for routes to Asia. 6. Zheng He made seven voyages and discovered the eastern coast of Africa. 3 2 4 1 6 5 Integrating skills Lead-in: What is the third pole? Why? 珠穆朗玛峰Mount Qomolangma Reading: Fast reading : 1.What do you think “the third pole” in the text mean? “The third pole” in the text means the highest mountain on earth. 2.Who were the first to climb to the top of Mount Qomolangma? They were the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay Careful reading: Please judge the main ideas to the proper paragraph Para1.; By the middle of 1920s, Mount Qomolangma remained to be greatest challenge for human beings. Para2. Climbing Mount Qomolangma was dangerous and it seemed almost impossible because of its extreme conditions. Para3: Sherpas prove to be the ideal guide since the first attempt though several attempt failed in 1920s, Para4: .Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay made their first successful attempt to the summit in 1953. para5: Who was the first to reach to the summit of Mount Qomolangma still remains to be a question. para6: Over the past 40 years, other 29 Chinese reached the summit for scientific research or sport. Explain the following phrases and sentences from the text in English. 1.Going to Mount Qomolangma was like going to the moon. It was quite difficult and almost impossible to climb up Mount Qomolangma and to the summit of it. 2. The death zone In this area, it is quite impossible for humans to survive for a couple of days , even though you can breathe extra oxygen. 3. They had no idea what they were up against. They didn’t know what difficulties would be in front of them and what the result would be. 4 English air. The bottle full of oxygen. Answer the following questions: 1 Why is it difficult to climb it? Because it is too high and the air is thin , oxygen is too low people can’t adjust to these Extreme conditions. Strength And skill are also needed. 2 Who was the first to reach the Mount Qomolangma? Why was it called a challenge? Edmund Hillary and Sherpa reach the summit on May 29,1953. it is a honor like winning in OLympics 3.How many chinese reach the summit from 1960 to 1975? Thirty-two (1975年5月27日,我国九名登山运动员从北坡登上珠峰 2003年5月21日,中韩联合登山队的中方队员在珠峰顶上举起国旗) Phrases: 除了…… 还有 apart from/in addition to/besides 调节/适应 adjust to 充当 act as 依靠rely on/depend on 把……当做refer to…as/think of…as/regard…as/treat…as 用尽 run out of sth 因某赞扬事某人praise sb for sth make (good ) use of (充分)利用 deal with处理 meet with (偶然)遭遇;碰到;尝到 evluate… from…从什么方面(观点)评价…….take possession of 获得;占有;作为……的代表 in the name of 以……的名义;作为……的代表;借……为名;以……为借口;凭……权威 search for寻找……;搜索;探求 long before很久以前。但before long是不久以后之意 contact with 与……联系;与……接触 in exchange for 与……交换 develop into 发展成为 lead to 导致;通向 be taken prisoner 作为囚犯被关押 date from 从……就开始有;追溯到 by the beginning of 到……(之)初 under the command of 在……的统帅下 in turn (for)作为……的报酬;作为交换(回报;回答) be up against 对抗;对付;面临 fail to 力所不能;失败 succeed in 在……取得成功 apart from别无;除……外(尚有) have something (nothing) to do with与……有(无)关 masses of fuel do research on a state project set sail to / from / for in return in darkness a large sum of money bring up in all show respect for sb. do observations adjust to these extreme conditions a couple of days at such a great height have no chance of surviving Unit 3 The land down under Reading: Pre-reading (1) What do you know about Australia? Australia was discovered about 53 000 years ago. It is possible that the first people crossed into Australia from Asia on great land bridge when the water above of the oceans was lower. (2) Look at the map of Australia. Australia is surrounded by many oceans: the Indian ocean in the west, the Southern Ocean in the south and the Pacific Ocean in the northeast. (3) Show more pictures about Australia to the students. Which questions will be answered in the passage and tick them. 1. How large is Australia? 2. When was Australia founded? 3. Who lives in Australia? 4. What is the capital of Australia? 5. What animals are native to Australia? 6. What is Australia famous for? 7. What does the Australia flag look like? 8. How many people live in Australia? 9. How is Australian English different from British and American English? Fast reading How many parts can the passage be divided into? Five What’s the main idea of each paragraph? Para1: The portrait of a nation Para2: The first Australians Para3: A nation of prisoners Para4: Another new world: The birth of a nation Para5: Speak Australian? No worries! Careful reading 1.The Australian flag shows________. D A. the UK flag and seven stars B. the USA flag and a large star with seven points C. the UK flag and six large stars with seven points D. the UK flag, a large star and a group of small stars 2. Who were the first people to arrive in Australia? C A. Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch. B. Prisoners and criminals from England. C. Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. D. Asian explorers. 3.According to the text, Asian countries have _________ on Australia culture. A A. great influence B. little influence C. no influence D. no effect 4.In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed the east coast of the continent for the_______ Crown. A A. British B. Spanish C. Portuguese D. American 5.What does the word ‘‘claim’’ mean in Paragraph 3 of ‘‘A nation of prisoners? ’’ B Australia A. need B. demand C. believe D. buy 6 It was ________ that made the original Australians suffer. A A. the American War of Independence B. Captain James Cook C. the English prisoners D. the first fleet of 11 ships 7.After the Second World War, Australia began to_______ B A. form the commonwealth B. transform itself into the modern country as it is today C. change its attitude towards immigration D. suffer from the Depression of the 1930s 8. The last part of the text tells us __________. B A. Australian English is the same as British English B. there are no differences between Australia English and British English C. all the words in Australian English have a different meaning from British words D. "down under" means the country of Australia to Australians 9. From the national flag of Australia, we can know________. C A. there are 5 states altogether in Australia B. people of Australia like American society C. people of Australia think they have something to do with the English people D. Australia suffered from immigration 10 From the text we can infer Australia came into being ________ the continent began to exist. B A. long before B. long after C. at .the same time when D. shortly after 11.The weather in Australia encourages . 答案:B A. indoor activities B. outdoor activities C. competition D. entertainment 12.Paragraph 1 of the text “Australia” mainly deals with . 答案:D A. climate B. geography C. history D. animals 13.The last paragraph of the text “Australia” mainly talks about Australia’s . 答案:D A. climate B. people’s life C. outdoor activities D. climate and people’s life 14.What sport is impossible in Australia? 答案:A A. Skiing. B. Swimming. C. Tennis. D. Basketball. 10.From the text “Australia” we can infer that Australia is famous for its . 答案:C A. industrial products B. educational products C. agricultural products D. recreational products Post-reading Answer the following questions. 1) What do the symbols on the Australian flag represent? Six of the points represent the original states (Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania) and the seventh stands for all the territories. The other stars on the flag represent the Southern Cross. 2) Who were the first people to arrive in Australia? The Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. 3) Why were prisoners sent to Australia after 1788? Where were they from? The American War of Independence made it possible for England to send prisoners to North America. They were from America. 4) What happened to the original Australians when the European newcomers arrived? The newcomers changed the way land was managed and introduced new plants and animals that were harmful to the Australian ecosystems. As a consequence, the original Australians suffered. 5) What was the problem with Australia's Constitution? The Constitution governing six states stated that men were free and equal, explained their base civil rights and described the new government. 6) How did the two World Wars change Australia? After the First World War, the country experienced social and economic unrest and suffered from the Depression of the 1930s. After the Second World War, Australia began to transform itself into the modern country as it is today. 7) How does Australian English differ from British English? Australian English differs from British English in pronunciation and some of the vocabulary. Integrating skills Get information about Australia Animals: kangaroo, koala bear, parrot, snake, digo, sheep, cattle Distance: 3220 km from north to south 4000 km from east to west Size: the same as the USA( without Alaska) Population: 20 million Agriculture: wheat, fruit, vegetables, meat, wines Natural resources: metals, precious stones, coal, iron Climate: cool and wet winters, warm and dry summers in the south; warm and dry winters, hot and wet summers in the north dry or desert in two thirds of the country Sports: tennis, sailing, swimming Careful-reading: answer the questions. 1. Why does Australia have so many plants and animals that can not be found anywhere else in the world? Because Australia has been separated from other Continents for millions of years. 2.Why do kangaroos carry their young in a pocket of skin on their stomach? Kangaroos give birth to very small and weak young. They are carried in a pocket of skin for several months while they feed on the Mother's Milk and grow stronger. 3. In what way is Australia different from all the other countries in the world? Australia is the only country in the world which covers an entire continent. 4. Compare the Climate in different areas of Australia with that found in different parts of China. The climate in Australia is different depending on the area. The south has cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. The north has warm, dry winters and hot wet summers. True or false 2 We traveled day and night.( F by day) 3 During walking through the desert, we couldn’t ride the wagons. 4 For many weeks we had suffered from heat, thirst and starvation. 5 During the long journey, we could help each other. (F The situation was so desperate that, in most cases, no one could help another. Each had all he could do to save himself and his animals.) Discussion: 1.Why does Australia have so many plants and animals that cannot be found anywhere else in the world? 2. Why do so kangaroos carry their young in a pocket of skin on their stomach? 3. In what way is Australia different from all the countries in the world? 4. Compare the climate in different areas of Australia with that found in different parts of China. Does the climate in your area affect the way you live? Phrases: go on + n. 继续…… a tour guide 导游 gobushwalking/walkabout/cycling/surfing 去灌木丛中散步/闲逛/去骑自行车/去冲浪 as a consequence (of)作为(……的)结果 break out (指激烈事件)突然发生 feed…on 给(人或物)食物 round up 集合在一起 be made up of 由……组成(构成) be surrounded by 由……包围;围绕着 be used to 被用来 form strong ties with 与……保持良好的关系 groups of 成群的…… be chosen as 被选为…… be harmful to 对……有害 have a strong influence on 对……有强大的影响 suffer from 遭受;受……之苦 transform… into 把……改变成 attitude toward(s) 对……态度 differ from/differ…from… 与……的区别 be fond of 爱好;喜好 give birth 出生 more than fourteen times as many people 人口比……多达14倍以上 keep out 遮挡 depend on 依赖;相信 all the year round 终年 be delighted to 高兴;喜欢 a 10-day trip to Australia stand for a highly-developed country benefit from heal its racial wounds be forced to do sth. sense of responsibility be connected to cover an entire continent a wealthy country round up all the year round be delighted to do sth. on an open fire off the northeast coast have access to water Unit 4 Reading: Warming up Look at the pictures and match each flower with its correct name Which flower is your favorite? Explain why. Pre-reading Why was Carl Linnaeus important to the history of botany as a science? His system of grouping plants in families was unique, which based on the arrangement of the male and female organs in the flowers. While-reading Fast reading How many people are mentioned in the passage? Carl Linnaeus Daniel Solander Joseph Banks Captain Cook Careful reading 1. Before Linnaeus botany was ________.D A.studied by doctors B.unknown to anyone C.fully developed D.a branch of medicine 2. Some economic species plants such as____ could help to develop local economies.C A.rose and peony B.tea and apple C.cocoa and hemp D.Cocoa and lemon 3. It was ____ who made Kew a centre of scientific and economic research.A A.Joseph Banks B.Captain Cook C.Linnaeus D. Daniel Solander 4.Paragraph one of the text mainly tells us ___ .C A.the importance of botany B.how to classify plant species into groups C.Linnaeus’contribution to botany D.Linnaeus’discoveries about different species 5.Captain Cook made ___voyages altogether around the world. C A.one B.Two C.Three D.four Post-reading 1. How did scientists classify plants before Linnaeus? Some scientists classified plants into herbs and trees, or according to the shape of the fruit, or whether they had flowers or not. 2. What were the goals of James Cook’s first voyage around the world? To study the passing of the planet Venus across the sun; to record, classify and describe all plant and animal life observed during the trip; to search for an unknown southern continent. 3. Why did Joseph Banks have to supply his own money to equip part of the expedition? Because the government would not pay for such a new field of science as botany. 4. What could be a possible explanation for the name “strawberry”? When people plant strawberry, they spread straw under the fruit to reduce the necessary amount of watering. Integrating skills Scanning Find out the important people mentioned in the text. Charles Darwin From England Gregor Mendel From Austria Gote Turesson From Sweden Choose the best answers according to the passage 1. The research by Darwin, Mendel and Turesson shows that_ . C A. genetics is more important than the environment to plants B. genetics is less important than the environment to plants C. both genetics and the environment are important to plants D. neither genetics nor the environment is important to plants 2. Darwin observed that the birds with _ _ would eat_ . B A. small beaks l hard seeds B.broad beaks;hard seeds C. hard beaks;hard seeds D.broad beaks;soft seeds 3.Darwin joined the scientific expedition on _____ . C A. the Endeavour B.Tahiti C.the Beagle D.space 4. Scientists of the nineteenth century believed that . D A.the development of new species was behind the influence of the environment B.the development of new species and the influence of the environment were hand in hand C.the development of new species had nothing to do with the influence of the environment D the influence of the environment was behind the development of new species . 5. Darwin studied physics,chemistry and botany because_________ . B A.he was invited to join scientific expedition B.he was interested in them C.he could do a lot Of experiments D.he wanted to finish his book“On the Origin of Species” Fill in the following blanks Scientist Research/experiment Result Charles Darwin The wild life of Galapagos, many varieties of garden roses There were differences between the species of the different islands’yet all showed a clear relationship with those of America’ differences in habitat could lead to different species in birds as well as in plants. Gregor Mendel Flowers and peas Many characteristics were passed on from one generation to the next, without influence by the environment. His research gave birth to the science of genetics. Gote Turesson A wild plant found on the Swedish west coast Found evidence for the existence of stable varieties within species in nature. He showed that differences between plants of one species occurred as a result of the environmental conditions in their habitat. The text can be divided into four parts Part I Pa1-3: Darwin and his research. Part II Pa4-5: Mendel and his experiment. Part III Pa6: Turesson and his study Part IV Pa7: the importance and significance of the research of the three. Important sentences in the passage 1. It was Darwin’s visit on the Beagle to the Galapagos Isles that gave him the key to his new theory. 2. Back home, in England, Darwin realized that differences in habitat could lead to different species in birds as well as in plants. 3. As a result of Darwin and Mendel’s research, scientists of the nineteenth century formed the belief that that influence of the environment was behind the development of new species. 4. It would take a next generation of scientists to bring the importance of the environment on species back in view. Translate the following phrases into English: 详细地 in detail 处于支配的地位,负责 in charge of 由……负责 in the charge of 任命某人为……appoint sb. as 将……分类成classify…into… 计算……之间的距离 calculate the distance between… 一代一代传下去pass on from one generation to the next 建于…;以…为基础be based on 参与; 陷入 ……的活动be involved in 根据;视……而定;按照according to 搜索;寻找 search for 总而言之 altogether match…with (在品质;颜色;设计等方面)相等,相当,相配 at the age of 在……岁时 look out for 警惕;留心;守侯 on a large scale 大规模地;大范围地 year after year 年年;年复一年 pass away 逝世 name…after 给……取名;命名 take care of 关心;照顾 classify…into 分类;归类 develop a lifelong friendship with 与……结存了终生好朋友 born into 出生 have an appetite for knowledge 有求知欲 a great deal of 大量;许多(用于不可数名词) lie in 在于 related to 与……有关 the key to 关键是(在于) adapt to 适应于 be sunken into 堕入 a bunch of flowers at first sight lead a cosy life make two more voyages be involved in lead sb. to do sth. calculate the distance between pass on from on generation to the next form the belief in view adapt to the new environment Unit 5 Getting the message Reading: Look at the pictures on page37 and fill in the chart Items Ad 1 Ad 2 Ad 3 The products they persuade you to buy Advanced electronic roducts Shampoo Soft drinks How to persuade By using abstract design, slogan and pictures By using wonderful pictures ,slogan and realistic products By using wonderful pictures, slogan and products The message each ad gives High quality, Help customers to succeed Create beauty,bring happiness and love to customers Help athletes to refresh themselves. How is the information conveyed Pictures, slogan, spokesman Products,slogan, pictures Pictures,slogan, products Words related to advertising advertise, advertisement advertiser, brand, post, spokesman, spokeswoman, designer, entertain, promote, customer, slogan, text, writer mislead, humorous, persuasive, broadcast, annoy, appeal to Pre-reading Collect advantages and disadvantages of advertisements from the students Advantages Disadvantages Provide information Mislead customers Increase sales Give false or incorrect information Make the public aware of social problem Raise the price of products 1.the first form of advertising : in Greece and Egypt around 1500 B.C. 2.the first printed advertisement: in London 1477 3.the first commercials on radio: about 1920 4.the first commercial on TV: after World War 2 Reading Find out the main idea for each paragraph Pa1: Ads are found almost everywhere Pa2: People react to advertisements in different ways. Pa3: The basic principle of advertisements is to influence customers’ choices. Pa4: Ads help companies and customers n a variety of ways. Pa5: the most important function of advertising is to introduce new products. Pa6: Governments and other organizations use ads to make people aware of government policies and social problems. Pa7: Customers should be careful of illegal ads. Pa8: Customers should learn to protect themselves from false ads and make smart choices. Answer the following questions Fast reading 1.What is people’s reaction to ads.? P2 2.What is the basic principle of advertising? P3 3.What is the most important function of ads? P5 4.what’s the advantage of good ads? P8 Careful reading 1.Why is advertising popular? 2.How does advertising help consumers and companies? 3.What is the basic principle behind advertisements? 4.Why do advertisers often have to work hard to attract people’s attention? 5.What is a “bait-and-switch” a? 6.How can we protect ourselves from misleading ads? Choose the best answers: 1.The word “advertising” means to make a product known to . D A managers through broadcast B leaders by radios C firms by printed notices D people in various ways. 2.One advantage of advertising is that it helps . A A increase product sales B make a product more expensive C increase production D reduce the costs of a product 3.Advertising is a highly developed . B A information B industry C trade D science 4.The development of radio, television, cinema, magazines and newspapers has with the development of advertising. B A followed up B gone hand in hand C gone behind D taken place 5. The best chance to reach customers is to . C A sell them the product B sell them what money can not buy: love, happiness and success. C appeal to their emotions D reduce the price of the products. 6.The development of media has gone hand hand the development of advertising. C A. by; by B. by; with C. in; with D. in; by 8.People react to advertisements in different ways.Because . 答案:A A. ads are useful and entertaining to some people while annoying to others B. ads are useful and entertaining C. ads are annoying D.ads are not only useful and entertaining but annoying 9.When we buy an expensive product, can help us make the right decision. 答案:B A. sellers B. ads C. our friends D. defenders 10.“Not all ads are used to promote a product or to increase a company’s profits” means . 答案:D A. all ads are used to promote a product or to increase a company’s profits B. few ads are used to promote a product or to increase a company’s profits C. no ads are used to promote a product or to increase a company’s profits D. all ads are not used to promote a product or to increase a company’s profits 11.In order not to become easy target for ad makers, we must . 答案:A A. distinguish between fiction and facts B. watch TV more often C. believe all the ads D. never believe any ads 12.The best chance to reach customers for the advertisers is to . 答案:A A. appeal to their emotions B. make interesting pictures C. give customers proper prices D. send messages to customers 13.Paragraph 4 is mainly about . 答案:C A. ads must increase the production B. ads must reduce the price of the production C. ads must help companies and customers D. ads must make a product more expensive 14.Which sentence tells us the main idea of Paragraph 5? 答案:C A. The most important function of advertising is to introduce the prices of the products. B. The most important function of advertising is to introduce the types of the products. C. The most important function of advertising is to introduce new products. D. The most important function of advertising is to introduce the company where the products come from. 15.Why is advertising popular? 答案:C A. Because ads are found in newspapers. B. Because ads are found on the Internet. C. Because ads are found on TV. D. Because ads are found everywhere. 16.We can infer from the last sentence of the text that . 答案:C A. we must learn to believe ads B. we must learn to accept ads C. we must learn to analyse ads D. we must learn to accuse ads T or F 1.People react to advertisements in different ways.( ) 2.The basic principle of advertising is fairly difficult.( ) 3.Since an increase in sales means an increase in production, the price may be increased, too. ( ) 4.Truthful ads provide good information that helps customers to decide whether they want or need the advertised product.( ) 5.Perhaps the most important function of advertising is to increase a company’s profits. ( ) 6.By using the techniques developed by the advertising industry, governments and other non-profit organizations can spread knowledge, change attitudes and improve society.( ) 7.All ads are not used to promote a product or to increase a company’s profits.( ) Difficult sentences 1.The development of radio ,television and other media has gone hand in hand with the development. 2.Customers see so many ads every day that advertisers must work hard to get their message across. 3.The best chance to reach customers is to appeal to their emotions. 4.First of all ,we should always keep an eye out for “hidden information”. Integrating skills Fill in the blanks for the revision Advertising is a highly developed industry. It has gone hand in hand with radio, television and other media. People react to ads in different ways. Some think ads are useful and help consumers make informed choices while others accuse companies of using ads to mislead us. Companies can influence customers’ choices by introducing a brand name and by associating products with customers’ needs. There are so many ads for customers that advertisers must try to get their message across by appealing to their emotions. Ads help companies and customers in all kinds of ways. They can help companies increase sales . At the same time , they help customers choose among all the available products. In fact, truthful ads provide good information,and help customers compare feathers, functions and costs. Some governments name a famous person as their spokesman or spokeswoman to make people aware of their social problems and policies. Customers should protect themselves by keeping an eye out for bad ads, telling false information from real facts and making good choices. II Lead-in 1 what product do they persuade you to buy? 2 what information about product can you get? 3 How is the information conveyed? 4 What are the skills of making good ads? III Reading 1 How do the ad-makers create a positive image of the product they are promoting? 2 How do ad-makers choose a name for the product? 3 What kind of slogans should be used to make the consumers to form a positive image? Can you give an example? 4 How are the ads presented ? How to create a positive image of the product Choose the words and brand names A good slogan 1 tell the consumer about 1 should be catchy the advantages of the product 2 easy to remember 2 choose a funny name 3 convey a message 3 use a well-known word 4 choose names from old stories 5 invent a new word Ads are started with a puzzle or question And presented in a humorous way in order to 为的是;目的在于 take …into consideration 考虑某事物 compare…with…把……与……比较(对比) complain about 对某人与某物抱怨 in charge of… 负责;处于控制或支配的地位 hand in hand 手拉手;密切关联的 with the develop of 随着……发展 on the other hand 另一方面 get… across 传播或为人理解 instead of 代替(后面接名词\代词\动名词或介词短语) appeal to 呼吁;上诉;投合(兴趣或心愿) armed with用…… 做准备;备有 make sb. aware of 使人明白;觉察;意识到 keep an eye out for留心或注意到某人或某事物 protect…from… 防护而不受 at the right time 在恰当的时候 point out to (向某人)指出;使注意 make sense 有意义;有道理;讲得通 accuse…of… 指责;控告 attach to 系;贴;固定;附着 differ from 不同于 attach importance to 给予重视 start with 以 开始 with the purpose of 以 为目的 point out 指出 refer to 指/参考 think twice 慎重考虑 large amounts of money make good choices out of ten take a critical attitude towards advertisements with the purpose of a series of at a loss profit by / from Unit 6 Reading Lead-in and Pre-reading 1. Who the Native Americans were? Where did they live and what do you know about their life? The Native Americans were the Indian. They lived in the vast land of West America and their life was simple and hard. They hunt for food and rode on horses. 2. History counts many cases in which settlers moved into areas that belonged to other people. Can you give some examples? What happened? The American continents were peopled as a result of two long-continuing immigration movements, the first from Asia, and the second from Europe and Africa. The first movement began probably 25, 000 years ago when Siberian tribes, in search of new hunting grounds or of refuge from pursuing enemies, crossed over the Bering Strait to Alaska. By 1492, over 10-20 million people, mistakenly called Indians by Christopher Columbus, inhabited the Americans. They developed their own aboriginal cultures, which ranged from the simple to the complex, from those of the primitive tribes to the brilliant civilizations of the Aztecs, the Incas and the Mayas. The second migration to the Americas began with the expansion of Europe at the start of the modern period from the 16th century. 3. The new settlements in America soon became known as the Wild West. Why? Because the western states of the US during the years were settled by the first Europeans. There was not much respect for the law there. Read the text then answer some questions. 1 When did we decide to move to another place? 1845,10 2 How long did the journey last? About a year 3 What is our first destination? India Greek in Kansas 4.What does “account” in the first line means? The “account” here means description. For example, “She gave the police a full account of the incident.” 5. In paragraph two, the author mentioned Indian Greek. Where was it and was it very important? It was in Kansas. It was the frontier at that time and also the meeting place for people moving to the west. 6. Do you know what difficulties they ran into during the journey? They entered the desert and lost their way, and didn’t have enough water to drink. Their animals died from lack of water. 7. According to the fourth paragraph, why do people call the desert Death Valley? People showed coldness and were not willing to help others in trouble. They abandoned everything they could. Valley is in chaos and full of dead animals. Therefore, we called it Death Valley. 8. Is the journey hard? Can you make some examples about it? Yes, it is hard. You can make many examples. 9. What is the theme of this passage? If you make unremitting efforts, you will achieve your goals. Don’t give up before difficulties. Listening Listen to the tape carefully then do these exercises. Post-reading Exercise1. True or False 1 We traveled alone. (F with many other families) 6 When a young man in our group suggested that I stay behind with the children and wait for help, I agreed. (F I didn’t agree.) ( )7 When the animals smelt the water, they all ran. Exercise 2 Choose the best answers 1.The reason why my father wanted to go to California is that . 答案:C A. California was in desert B. California was far away C. California was a wonderful land described in a book D. California was the largest state in the USA 2.People moving to the west would meet in . 答案:A A. Kansas B. California C. Salt Lake Valley D. Salt Lake Desert 3.On which day did the author enter the Salt Lake Desert? 答案:B A. April 12. B. November 4. C. October 15. D. December 25. 4.Why did the travelers call their ninety-mile drive through the Salt Lake Desert the “Long Drive”? 答案:D A Because the landscape was dry and barren. B. Because water was salty and not drinkable. C. Because their water supply was so low. D. All of the above. 5.After the travelers burnt their wagons, they had to go on their feet with another miles to go. B A.2 500 B.500 C.90 D.45 6.Why didn’t the author stay behind with the children and wait for help? A A. Because that meant he/she would die. B. Because he/she knew that children were tiresome. C. Because he/she knew that there was a wagon waiting for him/her. D. Because he/she felt he/she could get a prize by his/her father. 7.The animals almost ran when the travelers reached the edge of the desert, why? 答案:C A. Because they were tired and weak. B. Because they had no burden. C. Because they must have smelt the water. D. Because they went back to their home. 8.How long did the author spend finishing the journey? 答案:A A. More than 40 months. B. About 2 months. C. About a year. D. About a year and a month. 9.From the text, we can infer . 答案:D A. the author and the travelers had to go all day and all night long B. there was no oxen left when the travelers reached California C. many travelers died when their days of hardship came to an end D .it’s a long way to travel from the author’s hometown to California 10.The best title of the text is . 答案:B A.A Journey To California B. Long Drive C. The Salt Lake Desert D. Enjoy Your Life Questions: 1 Where in the text do you find evidence that the wagons were not he most suitable means of transport? You can find your answers in paragraph 3. 2 Why did the travelers call their ninety mile-drive through the Salt Lake Desert the “long drive”? We had to travel long without water or grass for the animals to eat. It was hard. 3 What can you learn from this reading passage? What impresses you most? 1)After suffering from many difficulties, we can live a better life. Facing the hardship, never give up, etc. 2)The courage of the people impresses me most. Passage analysis 1. What the writing techniques of this text are? A. Use of the chronological order to narrate the story. B. Use many participles to make the text readable and concise. C. The landscape of the Salt Lake Valley sharply contrasts with that of the Salt Lake Desert. The scenery of the Salt Lake Valley is very beautiful, however, that of the Salt Lake Desert is dry and barren. Use the sharp contrastive scenery, expressing the hero’s optimism about the life that he dreamed of in the West and coming across the difficulties on the way to the West. 2. What is the writing style of the text? The text is a narrative writing, which related a story that the hero’s family and other many families moved to the West. They ran into many difficulties on the way to the West. Finally they got to the West and started a new life. The text, which uses the first person to relate the hero’s true experiences, gives us a vivid description. 3.What is the main idea of the text? The text related a story that the hero’s family and other many families moving to the West. They ran into many difficulties on the way to the West. Finally they got to the West and started a new life. When they came across the problems, they didn’t escape them. However, they faced reality and solved the problems. They insisted on and made unremitting efforts, so they made their dream come true. Moreover, An iron pestle can be ground down to a needle - perseverance will prevail. 4. What’s the purpose of the writer? The writer wanted to tell us “When one comes across the problems, one shouldn’t escape them. However, he should learn to face reality and solve the problems. As long as he overcomes the difficulties and never gives up, he will achieve his goals and succeed. Moreover, he has dreams in his heart. As long as he insists on and makes unremitting efforts, I believe he will make his dreams come true some day. In fact, life itself is a battle. Natural environment and nature are your enemies. If you defeat them, you can live in the world, or it is death that is waiting for you.” 5. What can we learn from this text? We learned that during our lifetime, we may run into many difficulties. When we come across the problems, we shouldn’t try to escape. Instead, we should learn to face reality and solve the problems. As long as we overcome the difficulties and never give up, we will achieve our goals and succeed. Moreover, we all have dreams in our heart. As long as we insist on and make unremitting efforts, we will make our dreams come true one day. Integrating skills Lead-in What did he describe in the novel The Call of Wild by Jack London? And where did the story happen? This story happened in Alaska, a far and cold land. It described the life of a dog named Buck as well as other dogs’ encounter. Reading 1. Who do you think the three persons are? What are they talking about? I think Mr. Rivers is the host of a program. I guess Mr. Parks is a historian or something else. Ms. Welch is the granddaughter of Dr Welch. And Dr Welch was a doctor of a small city called Nome. 2. Where did the story happen? And what happened to the children? The story happened in a small city called Nome. Some children in the city had a terrible disease and they would die if they couldn’t get enough vaccine. 3. Where could they get the vaccine that would save the children? A hospital in Anchorage had a good supply of vaccine. It was far away from Nome. 4. What difficulties did they meet on the way and how did they overcome them? They faced many difficulties. First, the time was limited. The children would die if their treatment was delayed too long. Second, at that time, the sea was frozen and the only two planes had been stored, nothing got to Nome quickly. Third, The Arctic winter was very cold and there were terrible storms. Difficulties with the medicine delivery Their attitudes and solutions Traffic problems: The sea frozen; the only two planes stored; no quick traffic A train took the medicine from Anchorage to Nenana; A relay of dog teams between Nenana and Nome Snow storms and low temperature Kept going without stop Time limitation Covered almost 700 miles in little more than 127 hours Post-reading Questions on P53 and P54. Suggested answers: 1. Flu and diphtheria 2. As we all know, SARS spread through the world in 2003. SARS is short for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. 3. Dr Welch could save the children if he could get enough vaccine as quickly as possible. 4. Relay is an act of passing something along from one person, group, or station to another. We have relay race in sports, and torch relay. 5. A relay of dog sleds was chosen as the best transportation because in 1925, nothing got to Nome quickly, the sea was frozen, and the only two planes had been stored. Phrases believe in 信任;信耐 stand for 代表;代替 adapt to 适宜 lose heart 灰心;泄气 be cast away (被)抛弃 give up 放弃 less than 少于;不足 set off for 开始(旅程;赛跑);出发 move on 继续前进 take the way 出发;首途 lose one’s way 迷路 hang out 伸出 in desperate need of 在极度需要的(时候) on our feet=on foot 步行 be accustomed to doing sth. (通常用于被动语态)习惯于 suffer from 患病;遭受……之苦 hurry on to (with) 赶紧办理;急急忙忙地去做某事 stop to do sth.停下来去做某事 start doing sth. 开始做某事 go on all fours 用四肢 (at)the edge of of (在)……边缘 stare at 瞪视; 凝视 come to an end 结束;终止 a race against time 与时间赛跑 save…from 挽救……免于 take up to 占用(时间;空间) at stake 在危险中;关系重大 risk one’s life to 冒险去做某事 apply…to… 运用;应用 add up (两个或两个以上的数量或量)加起来 take it easy 别紧张;放松点 keep up 维持;保持;使某事处于高水平 common sense 常识;情理 leave behind 忘带;留下 live through sth. 经历某事物而幸存 tie up 系;拴;捆 go for 为……去;努力获取 be more of a leader than a follower be honest with by day / by night pass through be on one’s feet be accustomed to in anxiety of reach the promised land come to an end a relay of dog teams take up to 13 days Unit 7 Lead-in Charles Dickens was the greatest representative of English critical novelist in the 19th century. He wrote 14 novels and many other short stories in his lifetime. His style was realistic and humors .He gave us a vivid picture of life of ordinary people. His works shows sympathy for the poor. Scanning 1 When did this story happen? 2 How many people were mentioned? 3What was Ebenezer Scrooge? What kind of this man was? 4Who was Bob Cratchit? What did he want to do? 5 What did the gentlemen want Scrooge to do? Has he Promised ? What happened to Scrooge ? Skimming Analysis of the characters in stories by typical language. Main heroes What they say characteristic Scrooge 1”I have to pay you a whole day’s” Wages for no work. He says Humbug” 2”That’s an excuse for picking a man’s Pocket”. 3 Leave it alone Much good may it do you. 1 cold, interested in money. 2 not care for his employee. Bob 1”I’m too cold to write so I warm myself on the candle.” 2” I want a day off at Christmas” 3 Those who are badly off must go there poor, modest and careful. Fred “There are many things that do me good without bringing in profit” kind and helpful. Santa He always says “Ho,ho,ho.” make others happy Judge the following sentences True or false 1.It was cold in scrooge’s office and Bob had to warm himself over the candles. T 2. Scrooge was willing to let Bob have a day off because it would be Christmas the next day. F 3. Scrooge was invited by his niece and he accepted happily. F 4. A gentleman arrived at Scrooge’s office because he wanted to collected money for the poor. T 5. Scrooge didn’t want to give the poor any money because he was poor himself. F 6. According to the dialogue, in Scrooge’s dream he met his old friend ------Jacob Marley. F Posting-reading Choose the best answers 1.Christmas is traditionally celebrated on . 答案:B A. December 24 B. December 25 C. December 30 D. December 31 2.Which of the following is not true according to the dialogue? 答案:A A. The business is now owned by Scrooge and his partner, Marley. B. Marley died on December 24th. C. The gentleman tried to persuade Mr Scrooge to do something good for the poor. D .Many thousands of people don’t have enough money to keep themselves warm. 3.Ebenezer Scrooge is
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